Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Sociolinguistics free essay sample

It is the geographical boundary or delineation of a certain linguistic feature, e. g. the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or use of some syntactic feature. We will write a custom essay sample on Sociolinguistics or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Major dialects are typically demarcated by whole bundles of isoglosses, e. g. the Benrath line that distinguishes High German from the other West Germanic languages; or the La Spezia-Rimini Line which divides the Northern Italian dialects from Central ones. One of the most well-known isoglosses is the Centum-Satem isogloss. A major isogloss in American English has been identified as the North-Midland isogloss, which demarcates numerous linguistic features, including the Northern Cities vowel shift, the isogloss separates rather than connects points of equal language. An isogloss refers to a specific type of language border. It is the geographical boundary or delineation of a certain linguistic feature, e. g. the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or use of some syntactic feature. Major dialects are typically demarcated by whole bundles of isoglosses, e. . the Benrath line that distinguishes High German from the other West Germanic languages; or the La Spezia-Rimini Line which divides the Northern Italian dialects from Central ones. One of the most well-known isoglosses is the Centum-Satem isogloss. 1. In DIALECT geography, an area within which a feature is used predominantly or exclusively. Such a feature (phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, lexical, or other) usually contras ts with some similar feature in adjoining areas. Thus, some native speakers of English pronounce /r/ after a vowel, as in barn, hard, car, while others do not: in the US this postvocalic /r/ is normally present in the Chicago area but absent in the Boston area. Such distinct areas are isoglosses. 2. More commonly, the line on a dialect map which bounds the area of a certain usage. In England, an isogloss that stretches from the mouth of the Severn to Portsmouth separates the area of initial spoken /v/ from that of /f/, as in vinger/finger, Vriday/Friday, the v-forms being south-west of the line. No two isoglosses coincide exactly; there is always a transition area of partial overlapping. Social dialect: Another important axis of differentiation is that of social strata. In many localities, dialectal differences are connected with social classes, educational levels, or both. More-highly educated speakers and, often, those belonging to a higher social class tend to use more features belonging to the standard language, whereas the original dialect of the region is better preserved in the speech of the lower and less-educated classes. In large urban centres, innovations unknown in the former dialect of the region frequently develop. Thus, in cities the social stratification of dialects is especially relevant and far-reaching, whereas in rural areas, with a conservative way of life, the traditional geographic dialectal differentiation prevails. Educational differences between speakers strongly affect the extent of their vocabulary. In addition, practically every profession has its own expressions, which include the technical terminology and sometimes also the casual words or idioms peculiar to the group. Slang too is characterized mainly by a specific vocabulary and is much more flexible than an ordinary dialect, as it is subject to fashion and depends strongly on the speaker’s age group. Slang—just as a professional dialect—is used mainly by persons who are in a sense bidialectal; i. e. , they speak some other dialect or the standard language, in addition to slang. Dialectal differences also often run parallel with the religious or racial division of the population. Regional dialect: A speech pattern that alerts the listener that you are from a specific region within the United States. It may include non-standard pronunciation, grammar, resonance, pitch, rate of speech, and differences in vocabulary. A few examples of regional dialects include the New York and Southern American dialects. A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a nation state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area. Usually applies to the vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation characteristic of specific geographic localities or social classes. The vernacular is the informal everyday language spoken by a people. A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation (phonology, including prosody). Where a distinction can be made only in terms of pronunciation, the term accent is appropriate, not dialect (although in common usage, dialect and accent are usually synonymous). A regional dialect is not a distinct language but a variety of a language spoken in a particular area of a country. Some regional dialects have been given traditional names which mark them out as being significantly different from standard varieties spoken in the same place. Some examples are Hillbilly English (from the Appalachians in the USA) and Geordie (from Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK). A standard language (also standard dialect, standardized dialect, or standardised dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. As it is usually the form promoted in schools and the media, it is usually considered by speakers of the language to be more correct in some sense than other dialects. Usually, but not always, based on the tongue of a capital city, a standard language is defined by the selection of certain regional and class markers, and the rejection of others. This is the version of a language that is typically taught to learners of the language as a foreign language, and most texts written in that language follow its spelling and grammar norms. standard written language is sometimes termed by the German word Schriftsprache A Standard languages arise when a certain dialect begins to be used in written form, normally throughout a broader area than that of the dialect itself. The ways in which this language is used—e. g. , in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to the minimization of linguistic variation. The social prestige attached to the speech of the richest, most powerful, and most highly educated members of a society transforms their language into a model for others; it also contributes to the elimination of deviating linguistic forms. Dictionaries and grammars help to stabilize linguistic norms, as do the activity of scholarly institutions and, sometimes, governmental intervention. The base dialect for a country’s standard language is very often the original dialect of the capital and its environs—in France, Paris; in England, London; in Russia, Moscow. Or the base may be a strong economic and cultural centre—in Italy, Florence. Or the language may be a combination of several regional dialects, as are German and Polish. Even a standard language that was originally based on one local dialect changes, however, as elements of other dialects infiltrate into it over the years. The actual development in any one linguistic area depends on historical events. Sometimes even the distribution of standard languages may not correspond to the dialectal situation. Dutch and Flemish dialects are a part of the Low German dialectal area, which embraces all of northern Germany, as well as The Netherlands and part of Belgium. In one part of the dialectal area, however, the standard language is based on High German, and in the other part the standard language is Dutch or Flemish, depending on the nationality of the respective populations. In the United States, where there is no clearly dominant political or cultural centre—such as London or Paris—and where the territory is enormous, the so-called standard language shows perceptible regional variations in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. All standard languages are in any case spoken in a variety of accents, though sometimes one particular accent (e. g. Received Pronunciation in Britain) may be most closely associated with the standard because of its shared social or educational origins. In most developed countries, the majority of the population has an active (speaking, writing) or at least passive (understanding) command of the standard language. Very often the rural population, and not uncommonly the lower social strata of the urban p opulation as well, are in reality bidialectal. They speak their maternal dialect at home and with friends and acquaintances in casual contacts, and they use the standard language in more formal situations. Even the educated urban population in some regions uses the so-called colloquial language informally. In the German-, Czech-, and Slovene-speaking areas of middle Europe, for example, a basically regional dialect from which the most striking local features have been eliminated is spoken. The use of this type of language is supported by psychological factors, such as feelings of solidarity with a certain region and pride in its traditions or the relaxed mood connected with informal behaviour. . Code-switching is a linguistics term denoting the concurrent use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation. Multilinguals, people who speak more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages in conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching is the syntactically and phonologically appropriate use of more than one linguistic variety. Code-switching is distinct from other language contact phenomena, such as borrowing, pidgins and creoles, loan translation (calques), and language transfer (language interference). Speakers form and establish a pidgin language when two or more speakers who do not speak a common language form an intermediate, third language. On the other hand, speakers practice code-switching when they are each fluent in both languages. Code mixing is a thematically related term, but the usage of the terms code-switching and code-mixing varies. Some scholars use either term to denote the same practice, while others apply code-mixing to denote the formal linguistic properties of said language-contact phenomena, and code-switching to denote the actual, spoken usages by multilingual persons. In the 1940s and the 1950s many scholars called code-switching a sub-standard language usage. Since the 1980s, however, most scholars have recognized it is a normal, natural product of bilingual and multilingual language use. In popular usage outside the field of linguistics the term code-switching is sometimes used to refer to relatively stable informal mixtures of two languages, such as Spanglish or Franponais, or to refer to dialect or style-shifting, such as that practiced by speakers of African American Vernacular English as they move from less formal to more formal settings. Code-switching refers to alternating between one or more languages or dialects. It also occurs within a particular language. We use different forms of expression depending on the person we are speaking to and where we are speaking to that person. There are different degrees of formality and informality. Many times in English there is more than one way of pronouncing. Some people whose first language is English decide how they are going to speak by the context within which they are speaking. Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternating between one or more languages or dialects. Code-switching is the practice of moving between variations of languages in different contexts. This article explains the history of code-switching, explores important literature on the subject, and discusses approaches to language response in the classroom. Code-switching is the practice of moving between variations of languages in different contexts. Everyone who speaks has learned to code-switch depending on the situation and setting. In an educational context, code-switching is defined as the practice of switching between a primary and a secondary language or discourse. In a diglossic situation, some topics and situations are better suited to one language over another. Joshua Fishman proposes a domain-specific code-switching model (later refined by Blom and Gumperz) wherein bilingual speakers choose which code to speak depending on where they are and what they are discussing. For example, a child who is a bilingual Spanish-English speaker might speak Spanish at home and English in class, but Spanish at recess. Code switching refers to the switching between two or more different languages in a single conversation. This occurs when a bilingual person uses both languages to communicate with another person. It happens consciously as well as sub-consciously. In most cases both the people in the conversation are conversant with both languages. The switch from one language to the other can last for a single phrase to a few sentences. The switch is made mainly due to the mood of the speaker or he/she might feel that a particular part of the conversation can be best conveyed by switching to another language. The switch might also happen because the person does not know the appropriate word or phrase in a particular language. Code switching happens very often in ethnic minority communities in different countries. E. g. It is prevalent in the Indian and Hispanic communities in the United States. Pidgin is often confused with code switching but it differs because it refers to the mixing up of two different languages in a single word. In 1977, Carol Myers-Scotton and William Ury identified code-switching as the â€Å"use of two or more linguistic varieties in the same conversation or interaction. † Scholars use different names for various types of code-switching. Citation needed] Intersentential switching occurs outside the sentence or the clause level (i. e. at sentence or clause boundaries). Intra-sentential switching occurs within a sentence or a clause. Tag-switching is the switching of either a tag phrase or a word, or both, from language-B to language-A, (common intra-sentential switches). Intra-word switching occurs within a word, itself, such as at a morpheme boundary. Patois is any language t hat is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics. It can refer to pidgins, creoles, dialects, and other forms of native or local speech, but not commonly to jargon or slang, which are vocabulary-based forms of cant. Class distinctions are embedded in the term, drawn between those who speak patois and those who speak the standard or dominant language used in literature and public speaking, They are synonymous, but patois implies that it is the dialect of a region or a group (such as thieves), differing in various respects from the standard language of the country. — ORIGIN French, ‘rough speech’. The slang or informal speech used by a particular social

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